Проблема вимірювання благополуччя в етичному консеквенціалізмі
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The article deals with the analytical overview of contemporary monistic and pluralistic concepts of well-being. The matter, meaning, and moral importance of well-being are revealed. Representatives of different theories of ethical consequentialism consider well-being, welfare, and the quality of life as satisfaction of desires or preferences, as using of capabilities, achievement of the common good. The problems of measurement of the well-being of individual life, welfare, and the quality of life of nations are cleared up. Variability and “defectiveness” of some goods, mistakenness of some desires, spontaneity, and different characteristic features of individuals make interpersonal comparisons problematic. This paper demonstrates attempts of Desire Satisfaction Theories of Well-being (F. Feldman, J. Griffin, W. Sumner) to overcome these problems. Nevertheless, the fundamental moral and prudential incommensurables of some goods and some values (incomparability, trumping, weighting, discontinuity, pluralism) lead to difficulties in accounting of the common good. These problems lead to difficulties in the implementation of social and cultural policies of the countries. Overcoming these problems is possible in the Objective List Theories of Well- Being, which offer and justify the set of objective values. The special attention is given to Amartya Sen’s and Marta Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach. The development of capabilities stated by these researchers is aimed to lead to the growth of individual well-being, and to increase the welfare of the country as a whole. Accordingly, the presence or absence of these values is the criterion of general assessment of social institutions, which have to create, support and promote the common good. These values were used as the base indicator for measuring the quality of life by UN experts in assessing the well-being of many countries of world. Thus, it is argued that the pluralistic theories of well-being demonstrate their good theoretical and practical viability.В статье осуществляется критический анализ монистических и плюралистических концепций благополучия. Выясняются теоретические и практические проблемы измерения благополучия, связанного с удовлетворением желаний и предпочтений, использованием возможностей и реализацией общего блага.
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