Проблема часу в Новій філософії XVI—XVIII ст.
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The article is devoted to the analyses of conceptions of time in Modern philosophy. Practical importance of temporality as a link between contemplation and action is outlined. The role of time in cognition is defined. In Modern Philosophy of XVI—XVIII centuries problem of temporality is demonstrated in totally different perspective than in ancient and medieval philosophy. Primarily this issue is addressed to the human, the one who is endowed with mind. In this case mind is source of identity formation and characteristic of personality. The question of temporality is inextricably connected with the divine concept of creation and preservation of the world itself. Despite the critics of medieval scholasticism modern philosophers continue to follow this way of thinking, especially in the issue of time. Entirely in the tradition of medieval philosophy they explore time together with the duration and eternity. The main characteristic of time in Modern philosophy is duration, which lies somewhere between eternity, as an attribute of God, and time, as subjective way to measure this duration. Rene Descartes presents duration as a modus of substance. In order of importance it isn’t inferior to existence. The whole created world is finite in duration, everything which is infinite in duration is connected with eternity and has divine attributes of being. Time, for Descartes, is a way to conceive duration. Benedict de Spinoza considers that we cannot associate God with the duration, because thus we separate the essence of its existence, share that cannot be divided. Duration is always composed of parts, which we never find in eternity. We can comprehend eternity only with understanding the divine essence. British empiricists — John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume — analyzed duration as a subjective perception of time. Locke says that ideas of sequence and duration are caused by reflection of internal states of mind. Stream of time arises in inner human world. Berkeley rejects generalizations in time; researching and following Locke he connects the idea of time with the sequence of ideas in mind. Hume also considers that idea of time is connected with sequence of impressions and ideas in the human mind. To get an idea of time, we need sensible perception of changing states of consciousness. The main feature and the essence of time, according to Hume, is that each separated part of time coexists with previous and next. All these indivisible particles are invisible to the perception if not filled with something really existing, what we could perceive sensually.Статья посвящена анализу концепций времени в философии Нового времени. Определено практическое значение темпоральности для согласовании мышления и действия. Определена роль времени в познании.
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