Співвідношення традиції та новації: античний дискурс
Пітякова, Тетяна Степанівна
Питякова, Татьяна Степановна
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The article attempts to analyze the role of tradition and innovation in artistic and cultural existence of ancient times. It is noted that the Western civilization inherited such features from antiquity as flexibility in the perception of other traditions, lack of isolation, and difficulties in protecting its culture. Another tradition is seen as a model that requires critical analysis and transformation. The role of tradition in the social life of the ancients was dictated by the features of the industrial relations in the systems of the epoch. This explains and determines the place of a person in the ancient polis and his/her attitudes toward authority and all that was inherited from the past. In general the traditionalism of antiquity has seen ambiguous attitudes to tradition in the legal reflection of ancient thinkers, and was changing and its social role in the development of the slave mode of production. The ancient Greeks thought of tradition as a phenomenon of social life, as reflected in the content of ancient Greek drama. In classical tragedy the entire range of contradictory and paradoxical ancient life is presented. Therefore the analysis involved the following works of ancient Greek playwrights like Aeschylus, Euripides, Menander, Sophocles. Classic Greek art shows internal heterogeneity tradition of ongoing innovations that take different shapes. The ancient drama raised the problem of the correlation of tradition and innovation, the role the free identity in shaping one’s live, the human capacity to transcend the tribal traditions. The author notes that it was borrowed from ancient western tradition of active use of man’s mind, study the cause-effect relationships, rational approach to the knowledge of the truth. Antiquity was generated by various cultural traditions that were connected with each other by complex ratios objections and continued the previous historical and cultural development. It is concluded that the ancient culture with its source and attitude to the past can be considered as «monotraditional» and simultaneously as «polytraditional», in the form of its own existence, which is expressed in deepening cultural differentiation.В статье делается попытка анализа роли традиции и новации в художественном и культурном бытии античной эпохи. Отмечается, что западная цивилизация унаследовала с античности гибкость в восприятии других традиций, отсутствие замкнутости, жесткого предохранения своей культуры. Углубление культурной дифференциации, формирование в античности разнообразных культурных традиций, связанных между собой сложными отношениями отрицания и преемственности с предыдущим историко-культурным развитием, способствовали отношению к другой традиции как образцу, который требует критического анализа, использования и преобразования.