Феномен еліти в контексті суспільних трансформацій сучасності: термінологічний і типологічний аспекти
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Today’s Ukrainian society is in the process of active building of democracy. It is connected with the growth of influence of the elite. Elite is a group of people which elaborates decisions which are the most important for the state. Any society can be divided into mass and elite. Ukrainian society is not an exception. Democracy building is connected with ability of a society to formulate the main principles of its development independently. It is impossible without dialogue and mutual understanding between elites. During the 20th centuries Ukraine and other post-soviet states were transformed «from the top». It objectively increased the role of elite in the society. In the 20th–21st centuries this political strategy failed. It caused growth of separatism and political, economical and cultural crises. On the one hand, prestige and authority of the elite became lower. But, on the other hand, the elite faced the question of how to be a factor of social stabilization. In the context of the difficult situation of modern Ukrainian elite where every group has a separate view on the country’s development, the scientists should pay great attention on the role of the elite in the process of democratization. The aim of this paper is a socially-philosophical analysis of the phenomenon of the elite in the context of democratic transformations. The methodological background of the article includes the ideas of classic and non-classic theories of the elites, transit and synergetic paradigms. Methodological instruments include also a number of methods, such as phenomenological, dialectical, method of idealization, and logical methods. Different methods and principles were used on the grounds of the principle of complimentarily. The problem of elite has been analyzed in the works of the following authors: O. Asmolov, М. Veber, А. Galechyan, Е. Durkheim, F. Ivanyuk, Ye. Кopayev, І. Kukolev, P. Leshukova, М. Мatrynova, R. Millse, L. Ruban, Ye. Samoylov, К. Syerdobintsev and others. In the functioning modern society, the state, political regime and economical order much depend upon the type of national and political elite. Elite (from Latin eligo — «to choose», from French elite — «the best one») can be defined as a small group of people who control a disproportionate amount of wealth or political power. National elite is a wider notion than a political elite. It includes spirituallyintellectual, economic, military, and political and other types of elites. Political elite is a social layer which maintains power, preserves political values and reproduces political system as a whole purposely to satisfy the requirements of some social groups or the whole society. To achieve these aims the political elite uses advantages of its status. Elite is a relatively closed community with limited number of members which has the most influence on important political decisions. There are different classifications of political leaders. The most general and widely used classification was formulated by M. Weber. According to Weber, leadership in a political system is spearheaded by the three types of leaders: traditional leaders, charismatic leaders and bureaucrats. They operate under either a transactional or transformational political leadership model. According to Weber’s political leadership theory, transactional political leaders use their knowledge or legal authority to achieve results. On the other hand, transformational leaders utilize their personal charisma to achieve their objectives. The main functions of political leaders are the following: a) diagnostic function, which means that the people wait for the leader’s estimation of political and social situation; b) prescriptive function, the leaders formulate political strategies and directions of movement which correspond to the group’s interests; and, c) mobilizing functions, meaning that the leaders gain social support of their views and programs and motivate other people to act according with them. Generally, elite may be both the factor of progressive social development and the obstacle for such a development because of domination of manipulative technologies which prevent normal political communication between people and authorities.Элита рассмотрена как фактор, который оказывает сильное влияние на общественное развитие. Исследованы терминологический и типологический аспекты элиты. Сделан вывод о том, что элита — это социальная общность, которая отличается от остальной массы и занимает руководящую позицию в политической, экономической, научно-интеллектуальной и других сферах социального бытия. Она может быть как фактором демократических трансформаций, так и преградой для них.
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