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    Жива речовина і життя
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Панасюк, Броніслав Якович; Panasyuk, Bronislav; Панасюк, Бронислав Яковлевич
    The purpose of the study is to express the author’s concept on the appearance and formation of living matter in the geological epoch of planet Earth, as well as in times of climate change, in which there were various forms of living organisms. The studies were conducted on the basis of analysis of geological history, logical generalizations, philosophical approaches and methods, practical observations and some careful scientific research findings that in the existence of all life, until recently, by the statements of V. Vernadsky, did not give any results. In some cases instinct and intuition were used, which are inherent to many forms of wildlife. Through the use of methods to achieve this goal, the article suggests that during certain geological epochs of planet Earth, after drastic climate change, a special structure of the medium was formed, which contributed to the emergence of new forms of manifestations of nature. That is because living matter is an ongoing constant in the universe, galaxies and planets, but it can change and adapt to temperature, chemistry, energy and other environmental conditions that occur in certain geological epochs of planets, in particular, the planet Earth. Confirmation of temperature changes and the need to adapt to forms of living matter is the entropy, i.e., the conversion of all types of energy to heat and even its distribution between the bodies. The results of the studies provide some reason to believe that the continuation of geological and climatic changes will promote the emergence of new forms of living matter, and the disappearance of many of its forms from the past. Such a concept is likely due to the fact that past history confirms as reflected in materials research the actual disappearance of some forms of wildlife (plants and animals) and the emergence of other forms of wildlife, of which we have now. Regarding the role of individual forms of living matter, it should be at least preimagined that people use living matter of the planet Earth at will, using prepared mind, mainly damage to nature and themselves.
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    Витоки праукраїнської ідентичності у вимірі центрованості етнічного буття (VIII–ХІІ ст.)
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Скринник, Михайло; Skrynnyk, Mykhailo; Скринник, Михаил
    The issues of integrity and the centring of existence of the Slavic community and the identity of the Kyiv earth during the VIII–XII centuries are under analysis. The principle of a centring is the methodological basis of the analysis. It points out that any structurally formed society manifests itself through the wholeness of its own existence. Every being is centered if it is a holistic one everywhere in every its manifestation and claims its own integrity. The existence of Absolute idea of Hegel’s philosophy, or God in Spinoza’s philosophy might be some examples. The author proves that the term «Slavic self-consciousness» in the sense of «identity» is not applicable to the time of formation of «Russian identity». It is a construct of the late XVIIIth century, which arised with the emergence of the concept of Pan-Slavism. In contrast to the common name, which is «Slavs», each particular tribe was self-sufficient, and thus centered by its own unique being. In the regarded historical period the tribes recognized their tribal unity, solidarity, ethnic and political identity, but were not aware of the understanding of the abstract Russian affiliation introduced by the Vikings. The principalitys where united only by the name of «Rus» and by such theoretical constructs of identity as «Russian Land» and «Russian people». At the same time a powerful unifying factor — Christian Faith began to take root, especially in urban areas. But the existence of the community in this period remained de-centrated in two dimensions: the social-cultural, and the political one. Social-cultural de-centration was expressed by the multilinguality: the educated elite used the literary and written language on the Bulgarian-Macedonian basis and focused on Christianity. The set of tribal dialects and pagan beliefs opposed the princes’ and boyars’ top. The political plane of de-centration of the community is its internecine strife and clashes of the feudal princes, competition, the fight for the the throne.
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    «Вступ до сучасної метафізики» (уривок). Природа метафізики — деякі історичні рефлексії
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Лакс, Майкл; Loux, M. J.
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    До перекладу підручника Майкла Лакса «Вступ до сучасної метафізики»
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Симчич, Микола; Symchych, Mykola
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    Безпритульність як можливість витворення cенсу життя (на прикладі філософської позиції Еміля Сьорана)
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Сафонік, Лідія; Safonik, Lydia; Сафоник, Лидия
    It is noted that the figure of E.Cioran is quite useful and worth studying. No binary position of understanding this personality is able to evaluate the scope of his life, because it is true that E.Cioran was not looking for them and did not attempt to determine them. The article notes that the declaration of renunciation of domination over sustainability and continuity of life, which is specific for E. Cioran’s thoughts, is a lifestyle of many of today’s young people. It is mentioned that modern person is destined to fill the life with meanings. It is highlighted that the destiny of a person is to take a void in itself. It is possible to become the creator of sense and tonic origin, a measure of truth of the being. The feeling of boredom that arises in the soul, should alert the person that the life is not happening. In conclusion it is focused on the fact that E.Cioran as an example of his life shows that the person who is not able to find the meaning of his or her life in the territory of their homeland, is able to choose homelessness, lack of metaphysical homes and in such a way to find ways of filling the meanings of life and to create the life without relying on the familiar human things like home, family, children, career, success, recognition and so on. It is emphasized that understanding the realities of life, spiritual activity are able to save a man from committing suicide.
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    Модель екологічної естетики в теоретичній розробці Юріо Сепанмаа
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Ляшко, Любов; Liashko, Liubov; Ляшко, Любовь
    A rather new discipline for Ukraine which is called environmental aesthetics is under consideration in the article. The analysis of environmental aesthetics that explores the global problem of coexistence of man and nature through the definition of aesthetic value and symbolic meaning of the environment is the main focus in the modern philosophical discourse. The actuality of the topic is evident because environmental aesthetics is a developed discipline in the USA, Canada and Finland, some steps of analyses are made in Russia, but in Ukraine it has not become the subject of scientific discussion yet. It is necessary to stress the possibility of practical application of theoretical achievements in this field of research: in the Ukrainian educational space a course entitled «Environmental aesthetics» written by head of Kyiv ecological and cultural center V. Boreiko was introduced. It is aimed at giving skills of environmental and aesthetic attitudes towards the world of nature. The concept of environmental aesthetics created by the Finnish philosopher Y. Sepanmaa as one of the most prolific western treatment is considered in the article It reveales a substantive field and the main issues of environmental aesthetics that are fed into the overall context of aesthetic theory in the frames of ontology and metacriticism of environmental aesthetics. This study is conceptual and philosophical. In the paper the author mainly appeals to the work «The Beauty of Environment: A General model for Environmental Aesthetics», as it is the most thorough exposition of environmental aesthetics in this field of research. Firstly, Y. Sepanmaa has noted that there were three starting points for environmental aesthetics: the philosophy of beauty, the philosophy of art, and the metacriticism. Environmental aesthetics is the aesthetics of a real world. It is analyzed as a sphere of aesthetic appreciation of objects of the environment. Then, the author offered the classification of aesthetic objects: there are two types (natural and artificial) and three kinds: 1) works of art, 2) the invironment (in a state of nature and altered), 3) environmental art. There are no limits or criteria for the differentiating the class of «objects of environmental aesthetics», because there are no limits for them in space and time. Making the environment an aesthetic object is based only on a decision of the recipient. After that, the philosopher identifies three ways of aesthetic descriptions: description, interpretation, evaluation. It is concluded that the work «The Beauty of Environment: A General model for Environmental Aesthetics» helps to understand that environmental aesthetics belongs to the intellectual and cultural evolution of the modern times. It is a discipline with its own concepts, its own object, and problems, and, what is the most important, with its own contributions in the field of the aesthetic science. The main goal of environmental aesthetics is to educate a fully developed community that will live in harmony with the natural world.
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    Постнекласична антропологія в Україні (принципи «сизигійської антропології»)
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Вільчинська, Світлана; Vilchynska, Svitlana; Вильчинская, Светлана
    The Kizima's opinion about the methodological role of post-non-classical research in the development of anthropological theory is analysed in this article. The Kizima's theory on the man attaches particular importance to syzygy as an anthropological principle, refutes epistemological and ontological paradigm of modern philosophy and defends the integrated approach to the decision of problems. Reader is invited to conclude significantly overestimated self heralds Post-non-classical paradigm, on a simplified understanding of prospects for formation of anthropology as an universal theory. The author considers the syzygic anthropology over the context of the problem of systematization of history of Ukrainian philosophy, explores its place in the development of anthropological and philosophical views in Ukraine. This article analyzes the main ideas of syzygic anthropology that embody innovations of scientific cognition. In author's opinion, the originality of Kizima's anthropology is determined by the type of subjectivity formed in Ukrainian culture. This type of subjectivity is connected with the type of space assimilation. Ukrainian mentality is based on the principles gathering of being in the unity of place. Syzygic anthropology represents reconstruction of the world as a space of forving the self of a Ukrainian man. The Kizima's discourse defends the principle of supplementarity. The main accent has been made on necessity of the rejection of substantial approach to study of man, for this reason a multitude of theories of thinking about the postcontemporary processes of pluralism has been created. The simulative character of post-non-classical culture of thinking is demonstrated. The concept of transformations of features of «the soul/the body» opposition are tracked in the perspective of the latest values hierarchy.
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    Феномен еліти в контексті суспільних трансформацій сучасності: термінологічний і типологічний аспекти
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Андрієнко, Олена; Andriienko, Olena; Андриенко, Елена
    Today’s Ukrainian society is in the process of active building of democracy. It is connected with the growth of influence of the elite. Elite is a group of people which elaborates decisions which are the most important for the state. Any society can be divided into mass and elite. Ukrainian society is not an exception. Democracy building is connected with ability of a society to formulate the main principles of its development independently. It is impossible without dialogue and mutual understanding between elites. During the 20th centuries Ukraine and other post-soviet states were transformed «from the top». It objectively increased the role of elite in the society. In the 20th–21st centuries this political strategy failed. It caused growth of separatism and political, economical and cultural crises. On the one hand, prestige and authority of the elite became lower. But, on the other hand, the elite faced the question of how to be a factor of social stabilization. In the context of the difficult situation of modern Ukrainian elite where every group has a separate view on the country’s development, the scientists should pay great attention on the role of the elite in the process of democratization. The aim of this paper is a socially-philosophical analysis of the phenomenon of the elite in the context of democratic transformations. The methodological background of the article includes the ideas of classic and non-classic theories of the elites, transit and synergetic paradigms. Methodological instruments include also a number of methods, such as phenomenological, dialectical, method of idealization, and logical methods. Different methods and principles were used on the grounds of the principle of complimentarily. The problem of elite has been analyzed in the works of the following authors: O. Asmolov, М. Veber, А. Galechyan, Е. Durkheim, F. Ivanyuk, Ye. Кopayev, І. Kukolev, P. Leshukova, М. Мatrynova, R. Millse, L. Ruban, Ye. Samoylov, К. Syerdobintsev and others. In the functioning modern society, the state, political regime and economical order much depend upon the type of national and political elite. Elite (from Latin eligo — «to choose», from French elite — «the best one») can be defined as a small group of people who control a disproportionate amount of wealth or political power. National elite is a wider notion than a political elite. It includes spirituallyintellectual, economic, military, and political and other types of elites. Political elite is a social layer which maintains power, preserves political values and reproduces political system as a whole purposely to satisfy the requirements of some social groups or the whole society. To achieve these aims the political elite uses advantages of its status. Elite is a relatively closed community with limited number of members which has the most influence on important political decisions. There are different classifications of political leaders. The most general and widely used classification was formulated by M. Weber. According to Weber, leadership in a political system is spearheaded by the three types of leaders: traditional leaders, charismatic leaders and bureaucrats. They operate under either a transactional or transformational political leadership model. According to Weber’s political leadership theory, transactional political leaders use their knowledge or legal authority to achieve results. On the other hand, transformational leaders utilize their personal charisma to achieve their objectives. The main functions of political leaders are the following: a) diagnostic function, which means that the people wait for the leader’s estimation of political and social situation; b) prescriptive function, the leaders formulate political strategies and directions of movement which correspond to the group’s interests; and, c) mobilizing functions, meaning that the leaders gain social support of their views and programs and motivate other people to act according with them. Generally, elite may be both the factor of progressive social development and the obstacle for such a development because of domination of manipulative technologies which prevent normal political communication between people and authorities.
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    Інституціональна підтримка етики державного службовця
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Василевська, Тетяна; Vasylevska, Tetiana; Василевская, Татьяна
    The article substantiates the importance of the institutional means of securing the ethical dimensions of governmental management activities and the necessity of the balancing the institutional and moral mechanisms that support the civil servants’ ethics. It is noted that the transformations in the professional ethics of the civil servants should be realised in 2 directions: through their personal moral self-regulation which is based on internal imperatives and personal moral features of a civil servant, and through the institutional influence, changes in the organisational environment which implicate the creation of the ethical civil service infrastructure, implementation of the reputation control of the civil servants behaviour and the functioning of the active civil society. It is revealed that the institutions realize the immense functions of coordination of the public servant’s activities, prevention of misuse, conduction of the social control, realization of the country’s «ethics programme», legislative support of the fundamentals of the public servants ethics, securing the fulfilment of the profession’s requirements, and social, legislative and moral protection of the bureaucracy. The well-organised institutions do not allow the power representatives to break some ethical framework and lead the civil servants to adoption and interiorisation of the professional values and professional behaviour models recognized in the society. It is noted that depending on the basic means of public servants ethics support in the worldwide practice there are such approaches as the structural one (which stresses the importance on the institutional means), and the normative one (oriented on the proper professional socialisation and the civil servants’ realisation of the ethical values). Each one of these approaches has its pluses and minuses. That is why there is a need to balance the moral regulations in the process of the implementation of civil servants ethics.
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    Моральні виклики глобального інформаційного суспільства
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Запорожець, Тетяна; Zaporozhets, Tetiana
    The article is dedicated to the problems of global information society’s influence on the social morality and to the issues connected to regulating of such an influence. The interconnection between morality challenges of the global information society and the social risks is analyzed. The social, cultural, psychological and moral aspects of the information’s influence on the morality, behaviour, and communications of modern people within the society are summed up. The author points out that modern information society contains a lot of obvious and hidden unethical temptations, and points up the very necessary meaning of the moral self-consciousness in the process of perception of all information influence. The article notes the moral challenges of the global information society as follows: the widespread technological manipulation of the consciousness, both of separate persons’ and of the larger social groups, societies in general; the growth of pressure of informational confrontation and informational wars, creation of fiction and propaganda; the decreasing face-to-face communication; blurring of the line between the real and virtual reality; the loss of the need to connect to the surrounding environment and society, and the problem of loneliness and estrangement; the continuing distraction of the modern men from project-based, aimed action, from social activity and work of thought. Also, the information flows surpass human ability to conceive them; the sensibility threshold of the critical perception of the information lowers; «information garbage» and information overload lead to the patchiness, randomness of a worldview and intensify the disorientation in the social environment. It is also noted that the temps of the information’s quantitative increase, which includes scientific information, outpace social and cultural transformation; technology-humanity misbalance causes the augmentation of existing sources of social risks and the origin of new ones. The so-called «dangerous knowledge» grows as well. The problem of the progressive traumatisation of the people by the means of mass communication is highlighted. It is noted that the distance between scientific and technological progress and the ethic state of the society is expanding, thus the conflict of cultural time-lag strengthens. Ethical insensibility becomes a difficult contemporary challenge. It is also mentioned that the globalization and IT cause dilemmas, such as universalization, «westernisation» of the world, intrusion of the western culture and western values on the one hand, and the loss of the identification, identity and cultural diversity of the local (national) cultural worlds on the other hand. The author emphasises that the necessity of information management grows with the need to neutralize or reduce the mentioned dangers. The issues of regulating the ethical dimension of the information society on different levels — of major norms such as international regulation, of national norms, and of self-regulation and mutual regulation, are considered. The necessity of developing and spreading the information ethics and formation of state-of-art principles of communicative ethics is underlined.
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    Старі цінності в новій культурі. Філософська аксіологія Пауля Тілліха
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Таранов, Сергій; Taranov, Serhiy; Таранов, Сергей
    The paper concentrates on analyzing of original axiology methodology of Paul Tillich. It is shown that the ontological categories present explication of traditional values in any limited culture conditions, including contemporary spiritual situation. Paul Tillich was able to fulfil his ideal — «the preservation of old values and their translation in terms of a new culture». In this way the thinker’s research synthesized Antiquity and Christianity, reason and faith. Values can be found not only in the Christianity but also in general in the whole human culture and its quintessence — the history of philosophy. These studies give rise to a set of basic values. General value is Being. Ontological significance of Being structures hierarchy of values and ways of achieving it. Tillich comes to equate the concept of being, or, as he insists, Self-being (Esse Ipsum) with the idea of God; and to undeniable cognitive value of theology, which provides answers to life purport philosophical inquiries. Understanding Being as negation of negation of Being, as fullness of human reality in its entirety and infinity leads to awareness of the value of existentialist authentic existence, which shall have semantic power and expressiveness as «courage to be». Philosophy of culture can adequately understand his subject, using the achievements of philosophy of religion to open the theonomy culture. The belief in the sense of Being gives a historical distinction of two time forms — Chronos time, and time openness and revelation — Kairos. This requires faith in the way of hope, heavy, but that is not a passive expectation and active movement and openness. Understanding of same core values is possible through understanding the ontological nature of love. Something that aims at ultimate concern and is expressed, it is that value. Tillich has created the most powerful concept — «theological existentialism», which combines the passion of theological and philosophical wisdom, eternal values and their new formulation. Hence it proves the significance of this special form of existential philosophy — theological existentialism.
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    Любов у Середні віки: sic et non
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Ковальчук, Юлія; Kovalchuk, Julia; Ковальчук, Юлия
    The given article presents a philosophical analysis of medieval love through the prism of Abelard’s antagonism, «sic et non». The medieval contradiction of the spheres of the ancestral and the individual in human life, love — eros and love — agape is considered. In the context of the question of love, the sources of cultural romanticism are examined, in particular, the cult of the eternal feminine and the cult of the Virgin Mary. The phenomena of courtly love, erotic love — passion, and marital infidelity are reviewed. The history of the Middle Ages shall long impress upon human consciousness the signposts of medieval thought, intruding into the dark corners of the subliminal present. In the Middle Ages, through the adoption of the famous «sic et non» of Abelard, this concept of love attains the status of a small yet pivotal representative part of the entire epoch. Another bright symbol of the Middle Ages is the very story of the love of Peter Abelard and Heloise. The love of Heloise and Abelard is first of all a story of an achieved choice. Let it sound paradoxical, but the choice is made by a sinful woman, Heloise. Peter Abelard is brought to the ascetic monastic life through an occurrence, a physical trauma after which he becomes unsuited to married life. Would Abelard have become a monk if he had not got that trauma? On the other hand, Heloise enters the monastery consciously choosing that way of life for her. Undoubtedly, it is worth noting, that she takes the nuns’ veil because of her love for Abelard, and not because of her love for God. Of the two thresholds of medieval love: the high and the low, only Peter Abelard stood upon the high threshold of love for God, while their passion-filled love, as Heloise herself, remained on the lower threshold of human love, and all such lower’s love is destined to a tragic end. The given article also examines the conflict between the personal and ancestral, which seemingly denies the existence of love as a phenomenon, while simultaneously affirming it. The traditional treatment of the religious Christian doctrine of sexual love is that it is something carnal and sinful. It can be made noble only through love of God, becoming love that is both spiritual and personal. Regarding Eros as exclusively sexual passion, connecting it to the carnal nature, therefore, does not accept any kind of expression of love between man and woman. This view regards marriage merely as a formal covenant for the proliferation of humankind. Sexual love, demeaned by religious doctrine and by the fear of sin in a God-fearing Christian, begins a human revolution, leading to the demise of morality on several rungs of the social ladder. Therefore, the appearance of love for sale and moral dissoluteness become endemic during the «dark ages». Sublimation of passion and sexual desire (which is often expressed through excessive piety), brought many to a rejection of self and built up projections of idealized images, which were merely illusion. Courtly love became an expression of such brightly colored illusions of the Middle Ages. Courtly love alongside the phenomenon of chivalry, occupies a vital place in the culture of the Middle Ages. The art of courtship, the winning of the lady’s heart, which becomes the meaning of life for the young knight, was so cunningly invented, that it not only brought pleasure, but also served as the unparalleled method of perfection of the knight himself. Nonetheless, courtly love as had been in the case with passionate love was doomed to unhappiness, insofar as its momentary pleasures clouded the vision of true love. The Christian flame of love — agape thus becomes true love. This love is merciful, directed to those who need it. It contains a deep religious and philosophical meaning; uncovering it a person may reach unity with God through a neighbour. This love is not an alternative, but rather a synthesis of Abelard’s «sic et non». It is a synthesis the key idea of which is a personal love that may be aimed at either a human or divine person.
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    Римейк чи варіації? До проблеми розвитку сучасної музичної культури
    (ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана», 2015) Тормахова, Анастасія; Тоrmakhova, Anastasiya; Тормахова, Анастасия
    Modern philosophers Timotheus Vermeulen and Robin van den Akker note that the present socio-cultural pattern can be described as based on the ideas of metamodernism. Metamodernism is the dominant principle in the cultural consciousness of the past decade and manifests itself as the elite art direction, which creates its own world based on the latest developments in computer technology. However, many researchers still continue to move within the postmodern paradigm, noting the large number of features of the latter, which is full of modern social and cultural practices. This primarily concerns the problem of remakes, the number of which increases with the continued growth of media space. Remake in any artistic field is associated with repetition — of the plot, certain topics, and methods. In general, it is quite difficult to find examples of highly innovative pieces in the history of art, which were not invented some time ago by the «renaissance». It is written in the «Innovation and repetition» by Umberto Eco. However, the problem of music collision, repetition and innovation in music is particularly relevant wherever there is such a thing as a musicological «variation», «variability» and «variance». U. Eko is referred to in order to shape a variation that embodies the idea of «mass production». He points out that each repetition is actually a variation and a carrier of the creative imagination of the artist and the result of his ability to work with a specific material. If we analyze the today’s music culture, it becomes clear that the scope of classical music is innovative and it tries as much as possible to get rid of even the smallest «hints» to a remake, but there is an incredible amount of remakes created within pop music. But even here it is rather about a quote or more performing version. Various quotations and borrowings in this music can be interpreted as follows: 1) as a theme for variations, 2) materials for development (scratching, cutting), 3) an attempt of adaptation of the «classics» to the tastes of the general public. Their appearance here is as legitimate as that of paraphrases and transcriptions that were strongly represented in the musical culture of romanticism, particularly in the works of the famous Hungarian composer Franz Liszt. The composition «Somebody That I Used to Know» by Gotye and Kimbra can serve as an example of the emergence of an incredible number of remakes. The key and the ambiguity of this piece is the presence of a large number of renditions of the song, as there are lots of its various performances. We can conclude that the phenomenon of remakes, in other words repetition, citation, variance and variability characterize music as an art form. Multivariance of any work is its essential feature inherent in the very process of performing the work, which embraces the author’s remarks, dynamics and points; every time there is a different quality (either accelerating pace, variable implementation of dynamic tags features of sound etc.), which creates another emotions. This is as we call it «interpretation». Thus, the mere presence of remakes was known much earlier than the very beginning of the postmodernism era, but their apparent redundancy in the present emergency is caused by the development of information technology, the proliferation of new super-fast internet and interactivity that accompanies artistic phenomenon. Different interpretations and paraphrases existed since the beginning of the birth of music as such, but it is nowadays with the emergence of the ability to record and document versions performed made this phenomenon even more widespread.