Вплив банківського кредитування на економічний розвиток України
Сибірянська, Юлія Володимирівна
Сибирянская, Юлия Владимировна
Божко, Євгенія Олександрівна
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The article focuses on the role of bank lending on the stimulating the economic development of Ukraine. In the article were analyzed the dynamics of loans granted to domestic enterprises by banks and established, that there are the formal performance of the indicator of banking security; the sharp decline in bank lending in the first post-crisis years; the structure of loans by economic entities is accounted for 80% of short-term corporate lending (in 2007 - 2013 years long-term loans were on the average 12 % of the bank loan portfolio, and in 2002 - 2006 years did not provided); in 2008-2012 years for short-term financing of trade, repair of motor vehicles, household goods and personal consumption and manufacturing industries was accounted for over 50% of loans to entities A high proportion of short-term loans in the bank loan portfolio, which is increased from 41.1% to 51.9% in 2007-2013 years, indicate that the financial flows are directed to service the trade and mediation activity, rather than investing in the manufacturing sector. By an economic-mathematical modeling of the relationship of GDP, deposits and bank loans the impact of the banking system on the national economy is assessed. The model shows that the long-term lending has the greatest impact on economic growth, which is impossible without a stable funding base. The calculations showed that bank lending does not fulfill the role of an accelerator of economic development in Ukraine and appears as a source of covering the temporary needs for funds, and an intermediary of maintaining the shadow flows and is not an effective tool to stimulating the economic growth. We recommend some ways to solve the problems, which are described in the article: to grant only secured loans and stimulate long-term deposits by using regressive tax rate on interest income from deposits, depending on the term of deposit; to grant loans to the real sector of the economy on a long term basis with low interest rate; to monitor and coordinate the lending policy of commercial banks by the National Bank of Ukraine to stimulating the long-term lending in the real economy. In the future it will encourage the expanded reproduction in investment basis, which will help the economy to emerge from the crisis and to stimulate the economic growth.
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