Українське питання в контексті культурно-освітньої діяльності органів німецької окупаційної влади на території генеральної області «Київ» 1941—1944 рр.
Ukrainian question in the context of cultural and educational activities of the organs of German occupational authorities on the territory of general oblast “Kyiv” in 1941-1944
Главацький, Максим В.
Glavatskyy, Maksim V.
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На основі архівних матеріалів проаналізовано культурно-освітня діяльність органів німецької окупаційної влади, розкрито особливості українського питання на території генеральної області «Київ» у 1941—1944 рр.According to archival material it is discussed cultural and educational activities of German occupational authorities, revealed peculiarities of Ukrainian question in the general district «Kyiv» during 1941—1944.Cultural and educational activity of German occupation authorities, the peculiarities of the Ukrainian question in general oblast «Kyiv» in 1941 – 1944 are being analyzed with due regard to archival and analytical materials. Author notes that during the 1941-1944 Nazis opened in Ukraine a network of educational institutions. The initiative to create such institutions belonged mostly to local Ukrainian administration. German occupation authorities opened a network of secondary schools, colleges, various professional courses. Measures to realize educational policy on the whole were made. However Nazis did not get desired results. Noted educational measures were very inconsistent and limited. Besides that German occupation administration exercised full control and fierce ideological censorship on the content of teaching and teaching staff.The researcher believes that the Nazis saw education as a tool for establishing a “new order” policy, realizing thus the task of preparing loyal to Germany «half people». The official position of the leaders of Nazi Germany in the educational sector during the war varied from the denial of the right of Slavs for education to create a network of educational pre-school, primary and secondary schools, vocational education and then higher institutions. Concessions in education sphere were made regarding acute need for skilled labor. Activity of Germans in educational sphere created an impression that occupants are interested in national and cultural revival of Ukraine and provide public involvement into voluntary cooperation. However due to the contradictive logic of German educational policy, lack of unified standards of training procedures, a tough vertical management of educational process at regional level, an integrated system of education during the occupation in the general oblast «Kyiv» and Reich Commissariat «Ukraine» as a whole did not appear.The main directions of scientific institutions were dealing with collection and organization of cultural values export from occupied territory to Germany, as well as with research work. Diverse research projects were carried out by Germans with the participation of Ukrainian specialists mainly in the interests of occupational authority. As a result gained results together with significant number of cultural values were delivered to Germany.Socio-cultural policy played a minor role in the functioning of the occupation regime. With the establishment of civil administration it had undergone transformation: from denying the need of any development to certain concessions to Ukrainian consumers (social security, health care, education). The nature and dynamics of socio-cultural component of the “new order” witnessed about the failure of German bureaucracy to provide flexible response to the directives of senior management. Results were contradictive and inconsistent.На основе архивных материалов анализируется культурно–образовательная деятельность органов немецкой оккупационной власти, раскрываются особенности украинского вопроса на территории генеральной области «Киев» в 1941—1944 гг.
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