Сучасні загрози консолідації українського суспільства
Modern challenges to consolidation of Ukrainian society
Магда, Євген В.
Magda, Evgen V.
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Розглянуто проблеми на шляху консолідації українського суспільства від часу здобуття Україною незалежності. Виокремлено основні проблеми в таких сферах, як політика, економіка, етнополітика, соціальна структура, релігійне життя, мовна проблема, історична пам'ять.The author researches the problems towards consolidation of Ukrainian society from the time of independence of Ukraine. Key problems in the sphere of policy, economy, ethnopolicy, social structure, religious life, language question, historical memory are discussed.Consolidation means common work in order to reach common goal. The form of consolidation depends on its roots which are defined by society itself. The society shall be interpreted as consolidated when its elements are targeted on cooperation with each other more than on cooperation with elements of outer systems. The idea of consolidation of Ukrainian society is forming today as the idea of such model of Ukrainian state, that would be acceptable for all political and social groups.The main factor of consolidation of Ukrainian society nowadays is state. But there is no understanding of the real meaning of this acquisition. We may mention several reasons that have led to such neglecting of state. It is lack of traditions of nation-building, “sovok” heritage, traditions of national de-identified managing.The head count, made by Razumkov Centre, means to make an example of this. The respondents were asked whether they would like the recovery of USSR and socialist system. 48,7% told they would like to get “back in USSR” and 51,3% were against. Recent past separates Ukrainians.Such important problems that undoubtful impact the process of consolidation as forming and realization of ethnical policy, language policy, creating political identity always were in the limelight during election campaigns and were discussed and used by different political parties. The main attention is always paid to the language policy, to the status of Russian language in Ukraine.There is a complex of problems that traditionally accompany the process of forming and establishing of Ukrainian national identity. First of all, it is regional differences. They are shaped up as differences in approaches to the problems that always had high confrontational potential in Ukrainian society (language policy, NATO, appraisal of historical events, integration to EU or cooperation with Russia). The urgency if these problems become as high as close the election is, especially for those who live in South and East of the state.The ambivalence is one of the key characteristics of modern Ukrainian society. Opposite intensions co-exist in society – greeting of paternalism versus market economy and so on. This is the reaction on numerous and fundamental changes that Ukrainian society faced during last 20 years. But such reaction, such ambivalence leads to the stagnation. Moreover it makes dangerous illusion of possible “third way” or chance to create specific way of development of our country. But this “third way” leads nowhere, except “third world”. But little politicians or ordinary people do understand this.According to the recent sociologic researches society has mostly negative point of view on those factors that may consolidate it. First of all, it is pessimist ratings of future, dissatisfaction by authorities and by the crisis of political system. Therefore sociologists have marked several positions that might be the basis for consolidation in future. For 20,6 % respondents it is common history, for 14,7% it is common language (Ukrainian), for 11,6% it is national identity, and for almost 9% it is patriotism, and for almost 7% - the idea of nation-state building.The problems of language, ethnical policy, regional differences and identity are always used by politicians in order to give additional sense to their political campaigns. And this is not only the answer to the real challenges. It is also one of the ways of mobilization of the electorate before the elections. The need of realization the old script “friend or foe” might be explained by specific features of society itself. We mean regional differences in linguistic, ethnical and social characteristics, understanding and interpretation of historical events, opposite understanding of future.Despite calls for consolidation politicians often use these contradictions and as a result strengthen deconsolidation. Their social populism conserves the ambivalence of the society, produces and uses myths about two Ukraines, regions-donors and regions-consumers.Historical memory is the main constant value that unites past with present and with future, creates national tragic and heroic senses. Historical memory may be strong and effective instrument for consolidation. But in requires everyday work, knowledge about past and its interpretation in appropriate way, acceptable for everyone.We have to pay special attention to the role of the church in the process of consolidation of Ukrainian nation. During centuries it was powerful stimulus of unity for Ukrainians. But nowadays polarized and politicized church polarizes society. No one confession dominates in any region. Ukraine seems to be divided between different confessions and confrontation is going to be escalated. So it is not very helpful for consolidation processes. In spite of all these factors, recent opinion polls show that church has the highest level of trust in society, and the army or police has the lowest one. So church has the greatest potential for consolidation despite division and confrontation.External factors values as well. Influences from the West strengthen democratic characteristics of Ukrainian identity and obviously is more perspective. Russian Influences slow down consolidation processes. And no one factor seems to have absolutely positive impact on consolidation.We may mention several reasons that break the process of consolidation. Among them are regional and cultural differences (it turned out to be enormously hard to use these differences as platform for consolidation not for division), the lack of acceptable for everyone system of values, incompleteness of establishing of national elite, communicative openness of Ukrainian society to different influences, which are not always friendly to Ukraine as a state and to Ukrainians as nation .To sum up we may compare consolidation threats to national security threats as far as unconsolidated society has very little chances for successful state building. Eventually, Ukrainian society itself has marked starting points for consolidation. These are economic reforms and development, rising of living standards, safeguard of the rights and liberties of man and citizen. So it seems to provide not bad start.Рассматриваются проблемы на пути консолидации украинского общества от обретения Украиной независимости. Выделяются ключевые проблемы в таких сферах, как политика, экономика, этнополитика, социальная структура, религиозная жизнь, языковой вопрос, историческая память.
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