Діяльність українського націонал-демократичного об’єднання в польському парламенті (1938—1939 рр.)

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ДВНЗ «Київський національний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана»
Аналізуються основні напрями парламентської діяльності УНДО в історії сейму і сенату Польщі напередодні ІІ світової війни, проаналізовано найрезонансніші законопроекти націонал-демократів, визначено причини провалу нормалізації польсько-українських відносин.
It is analyzed the main spheres of parliamentarian activity of UNDO in the history of Sejm and Senate of Poland before the World War II, analyzed resonant drafts of national democrats, identified reasons of failure of normalization of Polish-Ukrainian relations.
During the second half of the 1930, the declared changes of the Polish government were not being carried aut, that challenged the feasibility of further continuation of the policy of "normalization." The failure of the policy of "normalization" has led to the decline of the role of the Ukrainian national democratic union (hereinafter - UNDO) and other legal parties and to the disappointment in the parliamentarianism. The policy of normalization is the settlement of the Ukrainian-Polish relations, that had been carried out by the agreement between the leadership of the Ukrainian National Democratic Union and the Polish government. It pushed the Ukrainian to much more radical methods of struggle, led to the popularity of nationalist organizations. However, despite the fact that nationalism was on the rise and national democracy decayed, UNDO and the Ukrainian parliamentary representation (hereinafter - UPR) stayed influential factors in the political life and considered by the Polish government.
Basis of the information sources, proposed by the author includes the archival documents, the materials of Polish and Ukrainian periodical press, recollections of the prominent public and political figures. The main purpose of the article is to identify the priority areas of parliamentary work of the UPR.
The results of the elections to the Polish parliament in 1938 for the UNDO were almost identical to the 1935 – the embassy seats got all the candidates agreed with the government, except for Syanotskiy, district where, despite the agreements, the Poles failed Ukrainian candidate despite the electoral compromise. "At the ballot, November 7, 1938 in Eastern Galicia attended 73,7% of the population in Volyn – 74,8%. The Election law led to the formation of the categorically obedient parliament, that became a puppet plaything in the hands of the President I. Mostsitskiy. Decomposition of the political forces in the Polish parliament after the elections was not in favor of the UPR.
The blame for the not realized normalization the Ambassador put on the Polish government, which beginning with the 1937 continued the anti-Ukrainian policy, the actions of the government „„the vshepoles‟‟ supported. The initiative of this political force there were series of eye, which adopted anti-Ukrainian resolution. In the wake of this campaign there appears a slogan saving of the kreses from Ukrainians However, the Polish press " paints the Ukrainian danger in the darkest colours...". Concluding the presentation, V. Tselevych said: "The blame of for the high government is the fact that beginning with 1935 there was no single step in the Ukrainian case, which would have more general political nature and could have beneficial impact on the mood of Ukrainian citizenship Moreover. The last time we have on the part of the Government a number of moves that should not be considered happy ... "
Already in February 16, 1939 V. Tselevych – the General Secretary of UNDO gave a statement in which "he showed his attitude to the Ukrainian business in Poland." The Volyn Ambassador S. Skrypnyk supported the representative of the UPR, who said that the reaction of V. Tselevych - was the "position of all deputies of the Ukrainian population in Poland, who sat in this High House." The Ambassador of the Volyn Ukrainian Association (hereinafter - VUO) stated that the demonstration the Ukrainians were accused of the Parliament follows out of the "anti-Ukrainian psychosis, growing from day to day and says again ignore everything that is connected with the Ukrainians".
According to the head of the UPR and UNDO - V. Mudry, the year of 1939 showed that the Polish government had no plans to change the attitude to the Ukrainians. "Last year brought to ambiguous tone of our national life reparation, - said V. Tselevych - but conversely our position during every examination became worse". As an example, the leader of the UPR brought a new budget in which there were no Ukrainian expenses. For these reasons the UPR refused to vote for the budget 1939 - 1940. At the same time the representatives of the VUO did not appear at the meeting of the Seym. The Statement of the Head of the UPR V. Mudry attracted a considerable attention in the Polish politics.
In acute international relations, V. Mudry said UNDO never come from the standpoint of political struggle for the rights of the Ukrainian people in Poland. The leader of the National Democrats said: "His civic duties toward the state will perform, while still performing, but also require the state not only guarantee and practically translate into life full pravovist [the law on territorial autonomy - RP] but also to reassure the national teams needs of the Ukrainian nation in Poland". Speech head unit of the Central Committee approved unanimously.
It became obvious that the government is going to implement the basic requirement Ukrainian Ambassadors - providing territorial autonomy to ethnic Ukrainian lands, which were in the Second Polish Republic. Anti-government stance provoked a number of critical performances member unit in late 1938 - early 1939, however, the unstable political situation in Europe, the growing tension in the central-eastern Europe were forced to UNDO in August of 1939 - the eve of the World War II, to deliver a statement loyal to Poland that eventually must be secure against possible Polish Ukrainian destructions.
Prospects for future research are in the conceptual formulation of the problem and a special comprehensive study of parliamentary activity UNDO in the second half of the 1930s in the context of social and political life in the Western Ukraine.
Анализируются основные направления парламент ской деятельности УНДО в истории сейма и сената Польши в канун ІІ мировой войны, проанализированы самые резонансные законопроекты национал-демократов, определенно причины провала нормализации польско-украинских отношений.
УНДО, сейм, сенат, законопроекти, нормалізація, UNDO, seym, senate, bills, normalization, УНДО, сейм, сенат, законопроекты, нормализация
Пуйда Р. Б. Діяльність українського націонал-демократичного об’єднання в польському парламенті (1938—1939 рр.) / Р. Б. Пуйда // Історико-політичні студії : зб. наук. пр. / М-во освіти і науки України, ДВНЗ "Київ. нац. екон. ун-т ім. Вадима Гетьмана", Ін-т історії укр. суспільства ; ред.кол.: І. Д. Дудко (голова) [та ін]. – Київ : КНЕУ, 2013. – № 1. – С. 33–41.