Політичні аспекти «аграрної» революції 1917—1922 рр. в Україні
Political aspects of “agrarian” revolution of 1917–1922 in Ukraine
Ковальова, Наталія А.
Kovalyova, Nataliya А.
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Розглянуто проблему залучення українського селянства до політичного життя в умовах революції і громадянської війни. Проаналізовано ставлення селян до влади, земельного питання, церкви. Показано аполітичність селянського життя.The problem of familiarization of the Ukrainian peasantry with political life under the conditions of the revolution and civil war is considered. The attitude of peasants to the authority, land question, and church is analyzed. The political indifference of country life is shown.The problem of familiarization of the Ukrainian peasantry with political life under the conditions of the Revolution and Civil War is considered in the article on the basis of the materials of village meetings (not introduced previously into scientific turnover) and narrative sources. For the first time in the national historiography, the “agrarian” revolution of 1917-1922 is characterized within the conception of Danilov V.P., Russian researcher of the history of peasantry. The 7 “Agrarian Revolution” has economic nature (the struggle of peasants against the landlords, priests, rich peasants and later - against the state), and the analysis of its political aspects can expand the understanding of the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917-1921.The particular attention is paid to the characteristics of peasants‟ attitude to the authority, land question, and church. The problem of familiarization of peasants with political life is being seen through the activity of rural meetings (gatherings, meetings): the frequency of calling, qualitative membership, role of front-line soldiers, workers of cities, and party agitators are highlighted in the formation of peasant attitudes and behavior.It is concluded that the decision of rural gatherings and land issue meetings were determined by peasant pragmatism concerning the attitude to the church in the years of 1917-1920. Ukrainian village under the conditions of the revolution and civil war was very far from the political process in the cities. Peasants, being in the conditions of anarchy or permanent changes for a long time, set their rural authorities, created independent peasant republics, and supported peasant rebel movement. Using its own discretion, the village having made the redistribution of land tried to ward off the negative impact of the outside world by the revival of community relations. The Revolution and Civil War changed the outlook, lifestyle, and even the nature of the peasantry.Рассматривается проблема приобщения украинского крестьянства к политической жизни в условиях революции и гражданской войны. Анализируется отношение крестьян к власти, земельному вопросу, церкви. Показывается аполитичность сельской жизни.
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